Flip it and Reverse it: Hip-Hop Worldwide

Review | 24 Bars to Kill: Hip Hop, Aspiration, and Japan’s Social Margins

24 Bars to Kill: Hip Hop, Aspiration, and Japan’s Social Margins. By Andrew B. Armstrong. New York: Berghahn Books, 2019. 193pp. ISBN: 9781789202670

Reviewed by Anthony Bak Buccitelli





Research as Sites of Memory: Musings on N.E.R.D. and Tyler, the Creator

What is a false memory? A sonic one at that? Is it when a person remembers things, events, places, feelings, thoughts and spaces that were untrue? I remember events that I never experienced before. Toni Morrison did too, and look at the worlds she invited her readers into. She explains her writing process stating, “My route is the reverse: the image comes first and tells me what the ‘memory’ is about” (114).

"Out for Presidents to Represent Me": The Breakfast Club, Hip Hop, and the 2020 Elections

With the rise of digital technology, images of Black people murdered at the hands of law enforcement have inundated various media outlets and influenced a surge in social activism. Recent protests, spearheaded by Black Lives Matter (BLM), have pressured America and its lawmakers to reckon with its “peculiar institutions” rooted in white supremacy and systemic racism (Wacquant 2010).


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